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  • 【人生的意義網】專注研究人生和解脫痛苦,為活著累、迷茫、抑郁、痛苦、絕望、悲傷、想自殺的人服務。治愈痛苦、撫慰悲傷!

    人生的意義網
    【人生的意義網】專注研究人生和解脫痛苦,為活著累、迷茫、抑郁、痛苦、絕望、悲傷、想自殺的人服務。治愈痛苦、撫慰悲傷!
    首頁 > 人生意義 > 活著的意義 > 羅素和愛因斯坦談論人活著的意義

    羅素和愛因斯坦談論人活著的意義

    2019-01-15 08:25 作者:人生的意義網 閱讀:

    我為何而生 
     
    ——伯蘭特·羅素自傳前言 
     
      對愛情的渴望,對知識的追求,對人類苦難不可遏制的同情,是支配我一生的單純而強烈的三種感情。這些感情如陣陣巨風,吹拂在我動蕩不定的生涯中,有時甚至吹過深沉痛苦的海洋,直抵絕望的邊緣。 
    羅素和愛因斯坦談論人活著的意義
      我所以追求愛情,有三方面的原因。首先,愛情有時給我帶來狂喜,這種狂喜竟如此有力,以致使我常常會為了體驗幾小時愛的喜悅,而寧愿犧牲生命中其他一切。其次,愛情可以擺脫孤寂——身歷那種可怕孤寂的人的戰栗意識,有時會由世界的邊緣,觀察到冷酷無生命的無底深淵。最后,在愛的結合中,我看到了古今圣賢以及詩人們所夢想的天堂的縮影,這正是我所追尋的人生境界。雖然它對一般的人類生活也許太美好了,但這正是我透過愛情所得到場最終發現。 
     
      我曾以同樣的感情追求知識,我渴望去了解人類的。也渴望知道星星為什么會發光,同時我還想理解畢達哥拉斯的力量。 
     
      愛情與知識的可能領域,總是引領我到天堂的境界,可對人類苦難的同情經常把我帶回現實世界。那些痛苦的呼喚經常在我內心深處引起回響。饑餓中的孩子,被壓迫被折磨者,給子女造成重擔的孤苦無依的老人,以及全球性的孤獨、貧窮和痛苦的存在,是對人類生活理想的無視和諷刺。我常常希望能盡自己的微薄之力去減輕這不必要的痛苦,但我發現我完全失敗了,因此我自己也感到很痛苦。 
     
      這就是我的一生,我發現人是值得活的。如果有誰再給我一次生活的機會,我將欣然接受這難得的賜予。
     
    What I Have Lived For 
     
    Three passions, simple but overwhelmingly strong, have governed my life: the longing for love, the search for knowledge, and unbearable pity for the suffering of mankind. These passions, like great winds, have blown me hither and thither, in a wayward course, over a great ocean of anguish, reaching to the very verge of despair. 
     
    I have sought love, first, because it brings ecstasy - ecstasy so great that I would often have sacrificed all the rest of life for a few hours of this joy. I have sought it, next, because it relieves loneliness--that terrible loneliness in which one shivering consciousness looks over the rim of the world into the cold unfathomable lifeless abyss. I have sought it finally, because in the union of love I have seen, in a mystic miniature, the prefiguring vision of the heaven that saints and poets have imagined. This is what I sought, and though it might seem too good for human life, this is what--at last--I have found. 
     
    With equal passion I have sought knowledge. I have wished to understand the hearts of men. I have wished to know why the stars shine. And I have tried to apprehend the Pythagorean power by which number holds sway above the flux. A little of this, but not much, I have achieved. 
     
    Love and knowledge, so far as they were possible, led upward toward the heavens. But always pity brought me back to earth. Echoes of cries of pain reverberate in my heart. Children in famine, victims tortured by oppressors, helpless old people a burden to their sons, and the whole world of loneliness, poverty, and pain make a mockery of what human life should be. I long to alleviate this evil, but I cannot, and I too suffer. 
     
    This has been my life. I have found it worth living, and would gladly live it again if the chance were offered me.  
     
     
    羅素和愛因斯坦談論人活著的意義
    我的世界觀 
     
    阿爾伯特·愛因斯坦 
     
      我們這些總有一死的人的命運多么奇特!我們每個人在這個世界上都只作一個短暫的逗留;目的何在,卻無從知道,盡管有時自以為對此若有所感。但是,不必深思,只要從日常生活就可以明白:人是為別人而生存的──首先是為那樣一些人,我們的幸福全部依賴于他們的喜悅和健康;其次是為許多我們所不認識的人,他們的命運通過同情的紐帶同我們密切結合在一起。我每天上百次的提醒自己:我的精神生活和物質生活都是以別人(包括生者和死者)的勞動為基礎的,我必須盡力以同樣的分量來報償我所領受了的和至今還在領受著的東西。我強烈地向往著儉樸的生活。并且時常發覺自己占用了同胞的過多勞動而難以忍受。我認為階級的區分是不合理的,它最后所憑借的是以暴力為根據。我也相信,簡單淳樸的生活,無論在身體上還是在精神上,對每個人都是有益的。 
     
      我完全不相信人類會有那種在哲學意義上的自由。每一個人的行為不僅受著外界的強制,而且要適應內在的必然。叔本華說:“人雖然能夠做他所想做的,但不能要他所想要的。”這句格言從我青年時代起就給了我真正的啟示;在我自己和別人的生活面臨困難的時候,它總是使我們得到安慰,并且是寬容的持續不斷的源泉。這種體會可以寬大為懷地減輕那種容易使人氣餒的責任感,也可以防止我們過于嚴肅地對待自己和別人;它導致一種特別給幽默以應有地位的人生觀。 
     
      要追究一個人自己或一切生物生存的意義或目的,從客觀的觀點看來,我總覺得是愚蠢可笑的。可是每個人都有一些理想,這些理想決定著他的努力和判斷的方向。就在這個意義上,我從來不把安逸和享樂看作生活目的本身──我把這種倫理基礎叫做豬欄的理想。照亮我的道路,是善、美和真。要是沒有志同道合者之間的親切感情,要不是全神貫注于客觀世界──那個在藝術和科學工作領域里永遠達不到的對象,那么在我看來,生活就會是空虛的。我總覺得,人們所努力追求的庸俗目標──財產、虛榮、奢侈的生活──都是可鄙的。 
     
      我有強烈的社會正義感和社會責任感,但我又明顯地缺乏與別人和社會直接接觸的要求,這兩者總是形成古怪的對照。我實在是一個“孤獨的旅客”,我未曾全心全意地屬于我的國家、我的家庭、我的朋友,甚至我最為接近的親人;在所有這些關系面前,我總是感覺到一定距離而且需要保持孤獨──而這種感受正與年俱增。人們會清楚地發覺,同別人的相互了解和協調一致是有限度的,但這不值得惋惜。無疑,這樣的人在某種程度上會失去他的天真無邪和無憂無慮的心境;但另一方面,他卻能夠在很大程度上不為別人的意見、習慣和判斷所左右,并且能夠避免那種把他的內心平衡建立在這樣一些不可靠的基礎之上的誘惑。 
     
      我的政治理想是民主政體。讓每一個人都作為個人而受到尊重,而不讓任何人成為被崇拜的偶像。我自己一直受到同代人的過分的贊揚和尊敬,這不是由于我自己的過錯,也不是由于我自己的功勞,而實在是一種命運的嘲弄。其原因大概在于人們有一種愿望,想理解我以自已微薄的綿力,通過不斷的斗爭所獲得的少數幾個觀念,而這種愿望有很多人卻未能實現。我完全明白,一個組織要實現它的目的,就必須有一個人去思考,去指揮、并且全面擔負起責任來。但是被領導的人不應當受到強迫,他們必須能夠選擇自己的領袖。在我看來,強迫的專制制度很快就會腐化墮落。因為暴力所招引來的總是一些品德低劣的人,而且我相信,天才的暴君總是由無賴來繼承的,這是一條千古不易的規律。就是由于這個緣故,我總強烈地反對今天在意大利和俄國所見到的那種制度。像歐洲今天所存在的情況,已使得民主形式受到懷疑,這不能歸咎于民主原則本身,而是由于政府的不穩定和選舉制度中與個人無關的特征。我相信美國在這方面已經找到了正確的道路。他們選出了一個任期足夠長的總統,他有充分的權力來真正履行他的職責。另一方面,在德國政治制度中,為我所看重的是它為救濟患病或貧困的人作出了可貴的廣泛的規定。在人生的豐富多彩的表演中,我覺得真正可貴的,不是政治上的國家,而是有創造性的、有感情的個人,是人格;只有個人才能創造出高尚的和卓越的東西,而群眾本身在思想上總是遲鈍的,在感覺上也總是遲鈍的。 
     
      講到這里,我想起了群眾生活中最壞的一種表現,那就是使我厭惡的軍事制度。一個人能夠洋洋得意的隨著軍樂隊在四列縱隊里行進,單憑這一點就足以使我對他鄙夷不屑。他所以長了一個大腦,只是出于誤會;光是骨髓就可滿足他的全部需要了。文明的這種罪惡的淵藪,應當盡快加以消滅。任人支配的英雄主義、冷酷無情的暴行,以及在愛國主義名義下的一切可惡的胡鬧,所有這些都使我深惡痛絕!在我看來,戰爭是多么卑鄙、下流!我寧愿被千刀萬剮,也不愿參與這種可憎的勾當。盡管如此,我對人類的評價還是十分高的,我相信,要是人民的健康感情沒有遭到那些通過學校和報紙而起作用的商業利益和政治利益的蓄意敗壞,那么戰爭這個妖魔早就該絕跡了。 
     
      我們所能有的最美好的經驗是奧秘的經驗。它是堅守在真正藝術和真正科學發源地上的基本感情。誰要體驗不到它,誰要是不再有好奇心,也不再有驚訝的感覺,誰就無異于行尸走肉,他的眼睛便是模糊不清的。就是這樣奧秘的經驗──雖然摻雜著恐懼──產生了宗教。我們認識到有某種為我們所不能洞察的東西存在,感覺到那種只能以其最原始的形式接近我們的心靈的最深奧的理性和最燦爛的美──正是這種認識和這種情感構成了真正的宗教感情;在這個意義上,而且也只是在這個意義上,我才是一個具有深摯的宗教感情的人。我無法想象存在這樣一個上帝,它會對自己的創造物加以賞罰,會具有我們在自己身上所體驗到的那種意志。我不能也不愿去想象一個人在肉體死亡以后還會繼續活著;讓那些脆弱的靈魂,由于恐懼或者由于可笑的唯我論,去拿這種思想當寶貝吧!我自己只求滿足于生命永恒的奧秘,滿足于覺察現存世界的神奇結構,窺見它的一鱗半爪,并且以誠摯的努力去領悟在自然界中顯示出來的那個理性的一部分,倘若真能如此,即使只領悟其極小的一部分,我也就心滿意足了。 
     
     The World As I See It 
     
    - Albert Einstein - 
     
    How strange is the lot of us mortals! Each of us is here for a brief sojourn; for what purpose be knows not, though he sometimes thinks he senses it. But without deeper reflection one knows from daily life that one exists for other people-first of all for those upon whose smiles and well-being our own happiness is wholly dependent, and then for the many, unknown to us, to whose destinies we are bound by the ties of sympathy. A hundred times every day I remind myself that my inner and outer life are based on the labors of other men,living and dead, and that I must exert myself in order to give in the same measure as I have received and am still receiving. I am strongly drawn to a frugal life and am often oppressively aware that I am engrossing an undue amount of the labor of my fellow-men. I regard class distinctions as unjustified and, in the last resort, based on force. I also believe that a simple and unassuming life is good for everybody, physically and mentally. 
     
    I do not at all believe in human freedom in the philosophical sense. Everybody acts not only under external compulsion but also in accordance with inner necessity. Schopenhauer's saying, "A man can do what he wants,but not want what he wants," has been a very real inspiration to me since my youth; it has been a continual consolation in the face of life's hardships, my own and others', and an unfailing well-spring of tolerance. This realization mercifully mitigates the easily paralyzing sense of responsibility and prevents us from taking ourselves and other people all too seriously; it is conducive to a view of life which, in particular, gives humor its due. 
     
    To inquire after the meaning or object of one's own existence or that of all creatures has always seemed to me absurd from an objective point of view. And yet everybody has certain ideals which determine the direction of his endeavors and his judgments. In this sense I have never looked upon ease and happiness as ends in themselves-this ethical basis I call the ideal of a pigsty. The ideals which have lighted my way, and time after time have given me new courage to face life cheerfully, have been Kindness, Beauty, and Truth. Without the sense of kinship with men of like mind, without the occupation with the objective world,the eternally unattainable in the field of art and scientific endeavors, life would have seemed to me empty. The trite objects of human efforts-possessions,outward success, luxury-have always seemed to me contemptible. 
     
    My passionate sense of social justice and social responsibility has always contrasted oddly with my pronounced lack of need for direct contact with other human beings and human communities. I am truly a "lone traveler" and have never belonged to my country, my home, my friend, or even my immediate family, with my whole heart; in the face of all these ties, I have never lost a sense of distance and a need for solitude-feelings which increase with the years. One becomes sharply aware, but without regret,of the limits of mutual understanding and consonance with other people. No doubt, such a person loses some of his innocence and unconcern; on the other hand, he is largely independent, of the opinions, habits, and judgments of his fellows and avoids the temptation to build his inner equilibrium upon such insecure foundations. 
     
    My political ideal is democracy. Let every man be respected as an individual and no man idolized. It is an irony of fate that I myself have been the recipient of excessive admiration and reverence from my fellow-being, through no fault, and no merit, of my own. The cause of this may well be the desire, unattainable for many, to understand the few ideas to which I have with my feeble powers attained through ceaseless struggle. I am quite aware that it is necessary for the achievement of the objective of an organization that one man should do the thinking and directing and generally bear the responsibility. But the led must not be coerced, they must be able to choose their leader. An autocratic system of coercion, in my opinion, soon degenerates. For force always attracts men of low morality, and I believe it to be an invariable rule that tyrants of genius are succeeded by scoundrels, For this reason I have always been passionately opposed to systems such as we see in Italy and Russia today. The thing that has brought discredit upon the form of democracy as it exists in Europe today is not to be laid to the door of the democratic principle as such, but to the lack of stability of governments and to the impersonal character of the electoral system. I believe that in this respect the United States of America have found the right way. They have a President powers really to exercise his responsibility. What I value, on the other hand, in the German political system is the more extensive provision that it makes for the individual in case of illness or need. The really valuable thing in the pageant of human life seems to me not the political state, but the creative, sentient individual, the personality; it alone creates the noble and the sublime, while the herd as such remains dull in thought and dull in feeling. This topic brings me to that worst outcrop of herd life, the military system,which I abhor. That a man can take pleasure in marching in fours to the strains of a band is enough to make me despise him. He has only been given his big brain by mistake; unprotected spinal marrow was all he needed. This plaguespot of civilization ought to be abolished with all possible speed. Heroism on command, senseless violence, and all the loathsome nonsense that goes by the name of patriotism - how passionately I hate them! How vile and despicable seems war to me! I would rather be hacked in pieces than take part in such an abominable business. My opinion of the human race is high enough that I believe this bogey would have disappeared long ago, had the sound sense of the peoples not been systematically corrupted by commercial and political interests acting through the schools and the Press. 
     
    The most beautiful experience we can have is the mysterious. It is the fundamental emotion which stands at the cradle of true art and true science . Whoever does not know it and can no longer wonder, no longer marvel, is as good as dead, and his eyes are dimmed. It was the experience of mystery - even if mixed with fear - that engendered religion. A knowledge of the existence of something we cannot penetrate, our perceptions of the profoundest reason and the most radiant beauty, which only in their most primitive forms are accessible to our minds - it is this knowledge and this emotion that constitute true religiosity; in this sense, and in this alone, I am a deeply religious man. I can not conceive of a God who rewards and punishes his creatures, or has a will of the kind that we experience in ourselves. Neither can I nor would I want to conceive of an individual that survives his physical death; let feeble souls, from fear or absurd egoism, cherish such thoughts. I am satisfied with the mystery of the eternity of life and with the awareness and a glimpse of the marvelous structure of the existing world, together with the devoted striving to comprehend a portion, be it ever so tiny, of the Reason that manifests itself in nature 


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